出版时间：2010-4 出版社：世界图书出版公司 作者：加来道雄 页数：587
Superstring theory (and its latest formulation, M-theory) has emerged as the most promising candidate for a quantum theory of all known interactions. Superstrings apparently solve a problem that has defied solution for the past50 years, namely the unification of the two great fundamental physical theories of the century, quantum field theory and general relativity. Superstring theory introduces an entirely new physical picture into theoretical physics and a new mathematics that has startled even the mathematicians. Ironically, although superstring theory is supposed to provide a unified field theory of the Universe, the theory itself often seems like a confused jumble of folklore, random rules of thumb, and intuitions. This is because the development of superstring theory has been unlike that of any other theory, such as general relativity, which began with a geometry and an action and later evolved into a quantum theory. Superstring theory, by contrast, has been evolving backward for the past 30 years. It has a bizarre history, beginning with the purely accidental discovery of the quantum theory in 1968 by G. Veneziano and M. Suzuki. Thumbing through old mathematics books, they stumbled by chance on the Beta function, written down in the last century by mathematician Leon hard Euler. To their amazement, they discovered that the Beta function satisfied almost all the stringent requirements of the scattering matrix describing particle interactions. Never in the history of physics has an important scientific discovery been made in quite this random fashion.
Preface Acknowledgments Ⅰ First Quantization and Path Integrals 1 Path Integrals and Point Particles 1.1 Why Strings? 1.2 Historical Review of Gauge Theory 1.3 Path Integrals and Point Particles 1.4 Relativistic Point Particles 1.5 First and Second Quantization 1.6 Faddeev-Popov Quantization 1.7 Second Quantization 1.8 Harmonic Oscillators 1.9 Currents and Second Quantization 1.10 Summary References 2 Nambu-Goto Strings 2.1 Bosonic Strings 2.2 Gupta-Bleuler Quantization 2.3 Light Cone Quantization 2.4 BRST Quantization 2.5 Trees 2.6 From Path Integrals to Operators 2.7 Projective Invariance and Twists 2.8 Closed Strings 2.9 Ghost Elimination 2.100 Summary References 3 Superstrings 3.1 Supersymmetric Point Particles 3.2 Two-Dimensional Supersymmetry 3.3 Trees 3.4 Local Two-Dimensional Supersymmetry 3.5 Quantization 3.6 GSO Projection 3.7 Superstrings 3.8 Light Cone Quantization of the GS Action 3.9 Vertices and Trees 3.10 Summary References 4 Conformal Field Theory and Kac——Moody Algebras 4.1 Conformal Field Theory 4.2 Superconformal Field Theory 4.3 Spin Fields 4.4 Superconformal Ghosts 4.5 Fermion Vertex 4.6 Spinors and Trees 4.7 Kac-Moody Algebras 4.8 Supersymmetry 4.9 Summary References 5 Mulfiloops and Teichmuller Spaces 5.1 Unitarity 5.2 Single-Loop Amplitude 5.3 Harmonic Oscillators 5.4 Single-Loop Superstring Amplitudes 5.5 Closed Loops 5.6 Multiloop Amplitudes 5.7 Riemann Surfaces and Teichmiiller Spaces 5.8 Conformal Anomaly 5.9 Superstrings 5.10 Determinants and Singularities 5.11 Moduli Space and Grassmannians 5.12 Summary References Ⅱ Second Quantization and the Search for Geometry 6 Light Cone Field Theory 6.1 Why String Field Theory? 6.2 Deriving Point Particle Field Theory 6.3 Light Cone Field Theory 6.4 Interactions 6.5 Neumann Function Method 6.6 Equivalence of the Scattering Amplitudes 6.7 Four-String Interaction 6.8 Superstring Field Theory 6.9 Summary References 7 BRST Field Theory 7.1 Covariant String Field Theory 7.2 BRST Field Theory 7.3 Gauge Fixing 7.4 Interactions 7.5 Witten's String Field Theory 7.6 Proof of Equivalence 7.7 Closed Strings and Superstrings 7.8 Summary References Ⅲ Phenomenology and Model Building 8 Anomalies and the Atiyah-Singer Theorem 8.1 Beyond GUT Phenomenology 8.2 Anomalies and Feynman Diagrams 8.3 Anomalies in the Functional Formalism 8.4 Anomalies and Characteristic Classes 8.5 Dirac Index 8.6 Gravitational and Gauge Anomalies 8.7 Anomaly Cancellation in Strings 8.8 Summary References 9 Heterotic Strings and Compactification 9.1 Compactification 9.2 The Heterotic String 9.3 Spectrum 9.4 Covariant and Fermionic Formulations 9.5 Trees 9.6 Single-Loop Amplitude 9.7 Es and Kac——Moody Algebras 9.8 Lorentzian Lattices 9.9 Summary References 10 Calabi——Yau Spaces and Orbifolds 10.1 Calabi-Yau Spaces 10.2 Review of de Rahm Cohomology 10.3 Cohomology and Homology 10.4 K/ihler Manifolds 10.5 Embedding the Spin Connection 10.6 Fermion Generations 10.7 Wilson Lines 10.8 Orbifoids 10.9 Four-Dimensional Superstrings 10.10 Summary References Ⅳ M-Theory 11 M-Theory and Duality 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Duality in Physics 11.3 Why Five String Theories? 11.4 T-Duality 11.5 S-Duality 11.5.1 Type IIA Theory 11.5.2 Type IIB Theory 11.5.3 M-Theory and Type IIB Theory 11.5.4 E8 E8 Heterotic String 11.5.5 Type I Strings 11.6 Summary References 12 Compactifications and BPS States 12.1 BPS States 12.2 Supersymmetry and P-Branes 12.3 Compactification 12.4 Example: D = 6 12.4.1 D = 6, N = (2, 2) Theory 12.4.2 D = 6, N = (1, 1) Theories 12.4.3 M-Theory in D = 7 12.5 Example:D=4, N=2 and D=6, N=1 12.6 Symmetry Enhancement and Tensionless Strings 12.7 F-Theory 12.8 Example: D = 4 12.9 Summary References 13 Solitons, D-Branes, and Black Holes 13.1 Solitons 13.2 Supermembrane Actions 13.3 Five-Brahe Action 13.4 D-Branes 13.5 D-Brane Actions 13.6 M(atrix) Models and Membranes 13.7 Black Holes 13.8 Summary 13.9 Conclusion References Appendix A.1 A Brief Introduction to Group Theory A.2 A Brief Introduction to General Relativity A.3 A Brief Introduction to the Theory of Forms A.4 A Brief Introduction to Supersymmetry A.5 A Brief Introduction to Supergravity A.6 Notation References Index
插图：(1) Because we are dealing with a first quantized theory, we have to take the sum over all interacting topologies that are swept out by the string. For the Nambu——Goto string, the precise nature of these topologies is ambiguous and must be specified by hand. However, for the Polyakov form of the action, which contains an independent metric tensor, we can eliminate most of this ambiguity by specifying that we sum over all conformally and modular in equivalent configurations. (These terms will be defined later.) This will become a powerful constraint once we start to derive loops and will determine the function measure uniquely. The measure and the topologies in the Nambu-Goto action, however, are not well defined. (We must point out, however, that this rule of integrating over in equivalent surfaces does not automatically satisfy unitarity. This still must be checked by hand.)(2) The gauge fixing of weyl invariance for the Polyakov action, although trivial classically, poses problems when we make the transition to quantum mechanics. An anomaly appears when we carefully begin the quantization process. In fact, this conformal anomaly will disappear only in 26dimensions.